Stephan Randolph Kawa

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Stephan Randolph Kawa

  • (AST,ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY & DYNAMIC)
  • 301.614.6004 | 301.614.5903
  • NASA/GSFC
  • Mail Code: 614
  • Greenbelt , MD 20771
  • Employer: NASA
  • Brief Bio

    From a start measuring air quality for industry through graduate studies in atmospheric chemistry near the Earth's surface, a post-doc focussed on stratospheric ozone, and a NASA career in global composition modeling and data analysis, I have always valued research near the interface of observations and theoretical modeling.  Data from remote sensing, in situ, and the laboratory gives us the opportunity to view new things, and comparisons to models, either in agreement or not, enables us to apply the research to understanding problems such as air quality, ozone loss, and global warming for everyone's potential benefit.

    Positions/Employment

    1995 - Present

    Research Physical Scientist

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD Chemistry and transport of atmospheric trace species; global 3-D modeling and chemistry-along-trajectories for analysis of airborne and satellite data; atmospheric effects of aviation; measurements and modeling of carbon cycle fluxes and transport.
    8/1992 - 1/1995

    Associate Research Scientist

    Universities Space Research Association, Greenbelt, MD Chemistry and transport of stratospheric trace species; three-dimensional global numerical modeling for analysis of aircraft and satellite data.
    9/1988 - 8/1992

    Research Associate

    Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science, University of Colorado, Boulder, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO Chemistry and microphysics of atmospheric trace species related to stratospheric ozone loss; development of numerical models for comparison of theory and observations.
    9/1981 - 9/1988

    Graduate Research Assistant

    Department of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO Atmospheric chemistry, planetary boundary layer processes, airborne measurement of ozone flux.
    1/1979 - 9/1981

    Senior Field Technician

    Aerovironment Inc., Pasadena, CA Air Quality Monitoring

    Education

    1988 - Ph.D. - Colorado State University, Department of Atmospheric Science
    1985 - M.S. - Colorado State University, Department of Atmospheric Science
    1972 - B.A. - University of Chicago, Biology

    Professional Societies

    American Geophysical Union, 1983 - Present
    American Meteorological Society, 1981 - Present
    Colorado State University Chapter President, 1984-1985

    Awards

    NASA Group Achievement Awards (9), 1991-2011
    Goddard Exceptional Achievement Award for CO2 Sounder, 2007
    Goddard Special Act Award for Leading Mission Concept Study, 2007
    Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres, Technology Achievement (Peer) Award, 2006
    Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres, Scientific Achievement (Peer) Award, 1998
    Distinguished Graduate Award, National Catholic Educational Association, 1998
    NOAA ERL Outstanding Scientific Paper Award, 1995
    AGU Editor’s Citation for Excellence in Refereeing, 1994
    Colorado Fellowship, 1983

    Selected Publications

    Refereed

    Mao, J., A. Ramanathan, J. B. Abshire, et al. S. R. Kawa, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, M. Rodriguez, W. E. Hasselbrack, X. Sun, K. Numata, J. Chen, Y. Choi, and M. Y. Yang. 2018. "Measurement of atmospheric CO<sub>2</sub> column concentrations to cloud tops with a pulsed multi-wavelength airborne lidar." Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 11 (1): 127-140 [10.5194/amt-11-127-2018]

    Crowell, S. M., S. R. Kawa, E. V. Browell, et al. D. M. Hammerling, B. Moore, K. Schaefer, and S. C. Doney. 2018. "On the Ability of Space-Based Passive and Active Remote Sensing Observations of CO2 to Detect Flux Perturbations to the Carbon Cycle." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 123 (2): 1460-1477 [10.1002/2017jd027836]

    Wolfe, G. M., S. R. Kawa, T. F. Hanisco, et al. R. A. Hannun, P. A. Newman, A. Swanson, S. Bailey, J. Barrick, K. L. Thornhill, G. Diskin, J. DiGangi, J. B. Nowak, C. Sorenson, G. Bland, J. K. Yungel, and C. A. Swenson. 2018. "The NASA Carbon Airborne Flux Experiment (CARAFE): instrumentation and methodology." Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 11 (3): 1757-1776 [10.5194/amt-11-1757-2018]

    Abshire, J. B., A. K. Ramanathan, H. Riris, et al. G. R. Allan, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, J. Mao, S. Wu, J. Chen, K. Numata, S. R. Kawa, M. Y. Yang, and J. DiGangi. 2018. "Airborne measurements of CO<sub>2</sub> column concentrations made with a pulsed IPDA lidar using a multiple-wavelength-locked laser and HgCdTe APD detector." Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 11 (4): 2001-2025 [10.5194/amt-11-2001-2018]

    Parazoo, N. C., A. Arneth, T. A. Pugh, et al. B. Smith, N. Steiner, K. Luus, R. Commane, J. Benmergui, E. Stofferahn, J. Liu, C. Rödenbeck, R. Kawa, E. Euskirchen, D. Zona, K. Arndt, W. Oechel, and C. Miller. 2018. "Spring photosynthetic onset and net CO2 uptake in Alaska triggered by landscape thawing." Global Change Biology, 24 (8): 3416-3435 [10.1111/gcb.14283]

    Wang, J. S., S. R. Kawa, G. J. Collatz, et al. M. Sasakawa, L. V. Gatti, T. Machida, Y. Liu, and M. E. Manyin. 2018. "A global synthesis inversion analysis of recent variability in CO<sub>2</sub> fluxes using GOSAT and in situ observations." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 18 (15): 11097-11124 [10.5194/acp-18-11097-2018]

    Singh, U. N., T. F. Refaat, S. Ismail, et al. K. J. Davis, S. R. Kawa, R. T. Menzies, and M. Petros. 2017. "Feasibility study of a space-based high pulse energy 2  μm CO_2 IPDA lidar." Applied Optics, 56 (23): 6531 [10.1364/ao.56.006531]

    Riris, H., K. Numata, S. Wu, et al. B. Gonzalez, M. Rodriguez, S. Scott, S. Kawa, and J. Mao. 2017. "Methane optical density measurements with an integrated path differential absorption lidar from an airborne platform." Journal of Applied Remote Sensing, 11 (03): 1 [10.1117/1.jrs.11.034001]

    Ott, L. E., S. Pawson, G. J. Collatz, et al. W. W. Gregg, D. Menemenlis, H. Brix, C. S. Rousseaux, K. W. Bowman, J. Liu, A. Eldering, M. R. Gunson, and S. R. Kawa. 2015. "Assessing the magnitude of CO2 flux uncertainty in atmospheric CO2 records using products from NASA's Carbon Monitoring Flux Pilot Project." Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres, 120: 734-765 [doi:10.1002/2014JD022411]

    Kiemle, C., G. Ehret, S. Kawa, and E. Browell. 2015. "The global distribution of cloud gaps in CALIPSO data." Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, 153: 95-101 [10.1016/j.jqsrt.2014.12.001]

    Hammerling, D. M., S. R. Kawa, K. Schaefer, S. Doney, and A. M. Michalak. 2015. " Detectability of CO 2 flux signals by a space-based lidar mission ." J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 120 (5): 1794-1807 [10.1002/2014jd022483]

    Glatthor, N., M. Höpfner, I. T. Baker, et al. J. Berry, J. E. Campbell, S. R. Kawa, G. Krysztofiak, A. Leyser, B.-M. Sinnhuber, G. P. Stiller, J. Stinecipher, and T. von Clarmann. 2015. "Tropical sources and sinks of carbonyl sulfide observed from space." Geophysical Research Letters, 42 (22): 10,082-10,090 [10.1002/2015gl066293]

    Wang, J. S., S. R. Kawa, J. Eluszkiewicz, et al. D. F. Baker, M. Mountain, J. Henderson, T. Nehrkorn, and T. S. Zaccheo. 2014. "A regional CO2 observing system simulation experiment for the ASCENDS satellite mission." Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14: 12,897-12,914 [10.5194/acp-14-12897-2014]

    Weaver, C. J., C. Kiemle, S. R. Kawa, et al. T. Aalto, J. Necki, M. Steinbacher, J. Arduini, F. Apadula, H. Berkhout, and J. Hatakka. 2014. "Retrieval of methane source strengths in Europe using a simple modeling approach to assess the potential of spaceborne lidar observations." Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14: 2625-2637 [10.5194/acp-14-2625-2014]

    Kiemle, C., S. R. Kawa, M. Quatrevalet, and E. V. Browell. 2014. "Performance simulations for a spaceborne methane lidar mission." J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 119 (7): 4365–4379 [10.1002/2013JD021253]

    Chatterjee, A., R. J. Engelen, S. R. Kawa, C. Sweeney, and A. M. Michalak. 2013. "Background error covariance estimation for atmospheric CO2 data assimilation." Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 118 (17): 10140-10154 [10.1002/jgrd.50654 ]

    Numata, K., H. Riris, S. Li, et al. S. Wu, S. R. Kawa, M. Krainak, and J. Abshire. 2012. "Ground demonstration of trace gas lidar based on optical parametric amplifier." Journal of Applied Remote Sensing, 6 (1): 063561 [10.1117/1.JRS.6.063561]

    Fishman, J., L. T. Iraci, J. Al-Saadi, et al. K. V. Chance, F. Chavez, M. Chin, P. Coble, C. Davis, P. M. DiGiacomo, D. Edwards, A. Eldering, J. Goes, J. R. Herman, C. Hu, D. J. Jacob, C. Jordan, S. R. Kawa, R. Key, X. Liu, S. Lohrenz, A. Mannino, V. Natraj, D. Neil, J. Neu, M. Newchurch, K. Pickering, J. Salisbury, H. Sosik, A. Subramaniam, M. Tzortziou, J. Wang, and M. Wang. 2012. "The United States' Next Generation of Atmospheric Composition and Coastal Ecosystem Measurements: NASA's Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) Mission." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 93 (10): 1547-1566 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00201.1]

    Riris, H., K. Numata, S. X. Li, et al. S. T. Wu, A. K. Ramanathan, M. W. Dawsey, J. Mao, S. R. Kawa, and J. B. Abshire. 2012. "Airborne measurements of atmospheric methane column abundance made using a pulsed IPDA lidar." Applied Optics, 51 (34): 8296-8305 [10.1364/AO.51.008296]

    Hammerling, D., A. Michalak, and S. R. Kawa. 2012. "Mapping of CO2 at high spatiotemporal resolution using satellite observations: Global distributions from OCO-2." J. Geophys. Res., 117 (D6): D06306 [10.1029/2011JD017015]

    Parazoo, N., A. Denning, S. R. Kawa, S. Pawson, and R. Lokupitiya. 2012. "CO2 flux estimation errors associated with moist atmospheric processes." Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12 (14): 6405-6416 [10.5194/acp-12-6405-2012]

    Liang, F., P. Palmer, Y. Yang, et al. R. Yantosca, S. Kawa, J. Paris, H. Matsueda, and T. Machida. 2011. "Evaluating a 3-D transport model of atmospheric CO₂using ground-based, aircraft, and space-borne data." Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11 (6): 2789-2803 [10.5194/acp-11-2789-2011]

    Oman, L. D., D. W. Waugh, S. R. Kawa, et al. R. S. Stolarski, A. R. Douglass, and P. A. Newman. 2010. "Mechanisms and feedback causing changes in upper stratospheric ozone in the 21st century." J. Geophys. Res, 115:

    Bian, H., M. Chin, S. R. Kawa, et al. H. Yu, T. L. Diehl, and T. L. Kucsera. 2010. "Multiscale carbon monoxide and aerosol correlations from satellite measurements and the GOCART model: Implication for emissions and atmospheric evolution." J Geophys Res, 115 (D7): D07302 [10.1029/2009JD012781]

    Liang, Q., R. S. Stolarski, S. Kawa, et al. J. Nielsen, A. R. Douglass, J. M. Rodriguez, D. Blake, E. Atlas, and L. Ott. 2010. "Finding the missing stratospheric Bry: a global modeling study of CHBr₃ and CH₂Br₂." Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10 (5): 2269-2286 [10.5194/acp-10-2269-2010]

    Kawa, S., J. Mao, J. Abshire, et al. G. Collatz, X. Sun, and C. Weaver. 2010. "Simulation studies for a space-based CO2 lidar mission." Tellus B, 62 (5): 759-769 [10.1111/j.1600-0889.2010.00486.X]

    Toon, O., D. O. Starr, E. Jensen, et al. P. Newman, S. E. Platnick, M. R. Schoeberl, P. Wennberg, S. Wolsy, M. J. Kurylo, H. Maring, K. Jucks, M. Craig, M. Vasques, L. Pfister, K. Rosenlof, H. B. Selkirk, P. R. Colarco, S. R. Kawa, G. Mace, P. Minnis, and K. E. Pickering. 2010. "Planning, implementation, and first results of the Tropical Composition, Cloud and Climate Coupling Experiment (TC4)." J. Geophys. Res., 115: D00J04 [10.1029/2009JD013073]

    Waugh, D. W., L. Oman, S. R. Kawa, et al. R. S. Stolarski, S. Pawson, A. R. Douglass, P. A. Newman, and J. E. Nielsen. 2009. "Impacts of climate change on stratospheric ozone recovery." Geophysical Research Letters, 36 (3): L03805 [10.1029/2008GL036223]

    Newman, P., L. Oman, A. R. Douglass, et al. E. L. Fleming, S. M. Frith, M. M. Hurwitz, S. R. Kawa, C. H. Jackman, N. A. Krotkov, E. R. Nash, J. E. Nielsen, S. Pawson, R. S. Stolarski, and G. J. Velders. 2009. "What would have happened to the ozone layer if chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) had not been regulated?" Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9 (6): 2113-2128 [10.5194/acp-9-2113-2009]

    Kawa, S. R., R. S. Stolarski, P. Newman, et al. A. R. Douglass, M. Rex, D. Hofmann, M. Santee, and K. Frieler. 2009. "Sensitivity of polar stratospheric ozone loss to uncertainties in chemical reaction kinetics." Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9 (22): 8651-8660 [10.5194/acp-9-8651-2009]

    Lokupitiya, R. S., D. Zupanski, A. S. Denning, et al. S. R. Kawa, K. R. Gurney, and M. Zupanski. 2008. "Estimation of global CO2 fluxes at regional scale using the maximum likelihood ensemble filter." J. Geophys. Res., 113 (D20): D20110 [10.1029/2007JD009679]

    Parazoo, N., A. Denning, S. R. Kawa, et al. K. Corbin, R. Lokupitiya, and I. Baker. 2008. "Mechanisms for synoptic variations of atmospheric CO₂ in North America, South America and Europe." Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8 (23): 7239-7254 [10.5194/acp-8-7239-2008]

    Law, R. M., W. Peters, C. Rodenbeck, et al. C. Aulagnier, I. Baker, D. J. Bergmann, P. Bousquet, J. Brandt, L. Bruhwiler, P. J. Cameron-Smith, J. H. Christensen, F. Delage, A. S. Denning, S. Fan, C. Geels, S. Houweling, R. Imasu, U. Karstens, and S. R. Kawa. 2008. "TransCom model simulations of hourly atmospheric CO2: Experimental overview and diurnal cycle results for 2002." Global Biochem Cycles, 22 (GB3009, doi:101029/):

    Alkhaled, A. A., A. M. Michalak, and S. R. Kawa. 2008. "Using CO2 spatial variability to quantify representation errors of satellite CO2 retrievals." Geophy Res Lett, 35 (L16813, doi:101029/):

    Erickson III, D. J., R. T. Mills, J. Gregg, et al. T. J. Blasing, F. M. Hoffman, R. J. Andres, M. Devries, Z. Zhu, and S. R. Kawa. 2008. "An estimate of monthly global emissions of anthropogenic CO2: Impact on the seasonal cycle of atmospheric CO2." J Geophys Res, 113 (G01023): 9 pp [10.1029/2007JG000435]

    Alkhaled, A. A., A. M. Michalak, S. R. Kawa, S. C. Olsen, and J.-W. Wang. 2008. "A global evaluation of the regional spatial variability of column integrated CO2 distributions." J Geophys Res, 113 (D20): 303-319 [10.1029/2007JD009693]

    Pawson, S., I. Stajner, S. Kawa, et al. H. Hayasha, W. Tan, J. Nielsen, Z. Zhu, L. Chang, and N. Livesey. 2007. "Stratospheric transport using 6-h-averaged winds from a data assimilation system." J Geophys Res, 112 (D23103): 1-12.

    Schoeberl, M. R., S. R. Kawa, A. R. Douglass, et al. T. J. McGee, E. V. Browell, J. Waters, N. Livesey, W. Read, L. Froidevaux, M. L. Santee, H. C. Pumphrey, L. R. Lait, and L. Twigg. 2006. "Chemical observations of a polar vortex intrusion." J. Geophys. Res., 111 (D20): D20306 [10.1029/2006JD007134]

    Newman, P., S. R. Kawa, E. R. Nash, S. Montzka, and S. Schauffler. 2006. "When will the Antarctic ozone hole recover?" Geophysical Research Letters, 33 (12): L12814 [10.1029/2005GL025232]

    Schoeberl, M., S. R. Kawa, A. R. Douglass, et al. T. J. Mcgee, E. V. Browell, J. Waters, N. Livesey, W. Read, L. Froidevaux, M. L. Santee, H. C. Pumphrey, L. R. Lait, and L. Twigg. 2006. "Chemical observations of a polar vortex intrusion." J Geophys Res, 111: D20306 [10.1029/2006JD007134]

    Bian, H., S. R. Kawa, M. Chin, et al. S. Pawson, Z. Zhu, P. Rasch, and S. Wu. 2006. "A test of sensitivity to convective transport in a global atmospheric CO2 simulation." Tellus B, 58 (5): 463-475 [10.1111/j.1600-0889.2006.00212.x]

    Kawa, S. R., P. Newman, R. Stolarski, and R. Bevilacqua. 2005. "Fall vortex ozone as a predictor of springtime total ozone at high northern latitudes." Atmos Chem Phys, 5: 1655-1663.

    Gurney, K. R., Y.-H. Chen, T. Maki, et al. S. R. Kawa, A. E. Andrews, and Z. Zhu. 2005. "Sensitivity of atmospheric CO₂ inversions to seasonal and interannual variations in fossil fuel emissions." J. Geophys. Res., 110 (D10): D10308 [10.1029/2004JD005373]

    Mao, J., and S. R. Kawa. 2004. "Sensitivity Studies for Space-based Measurement of Atmospheric Total Column Carbon Dioxide by Reflected Sunlight." Applied Optics, 43: 914-927.

    Kawa, S. R., D. J. Erickson III, S. Pawson, and Z. Zhu. 2004. "Global CO₂ transport simulations using meteorological data from the NASA data assimilation system." J. Geophys. Res., 109 (D18): D18312 [10.1029/2004JD004554]

    Ma, J., D. W. Waugh, A. R. Douglass, et al. S. R. Kawa, P. A. Newman, S. Pawson, R. S. Stolarski, S. J. Lin, and Q. J. Roy. 2004. "Interannual variability of stratospheric trace gases: The role of extratropical wave driving." Met. Soc, 130: 2459-2474.

    Newman, P. A., S. R. Kawa, and E. R. Nash. 2004. "On the size of the Antarctic ozone hole." Geophys. Res. Lett, 31 (21): L21104.

    Considine, D. B., S. R. Kawa, M. R. Schoeberl, and A. R. Douglass. 2003. "N2O and NOy observations in the 1999/2000 Arctic polar vortex: Implications for transport processes in a CTM." J. Geophys. Res., 108 (D5): 4170 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1029/2002JD002525]

    Kawa, S. R., R. Bevilacqua, J. J. Margitan, et al. A. R. Douglass, M. R. Schoeberl, K. Hoppel, and B. Sen. 2002. "Interaction between dynamics and chemistry of ozone in the setup phase of the Northern Hemisphere polar vortex." J. Geophys. Res., 107 (D5): 8310 [10.1029/2001JD001527]

    Cordero, E. C., and S. R. Kawa. 2001. "Ozone and Tracer Transport Variations in the Summer Northern Hemisphere Stratosphere,." J. Geophys. Res., 106: 12 [Full Text (Link)] [227-12]

    Pierson, J. M., S. R. Kawa, R. J. Salawitch, et al. T. F. Hanisco, E. J. Lanzendorf, K. K. Perkins, and R. S. Gao. 2000. "The Influence of Airmass Histories on Radical Species During POLARIS,." J. Geophys. Res., 105: 15185-15199.

    Kawa, S. R., J. G. Anderson, S. L. Baughcum, et al. C. Brock, W. H. Brune, R. C. Cohen, D. E. Kinnison, P. Newman, J. M. Rodriguez, R. S. Stolarski, D. W. Waugh, and S. C. Wofsy. 1999. "Assessment of the Effects of High-Speed Aircraft in the Stratosphere: 1998." NASA/TP-1999-209237,

    Newman, P., D. Fahey, W. Brune, M. Kurylo, and S. R. Kawa. 1999. "Preface: Photochemistry of Ozone Loss in the Arctic Region in Summer (POLARIS)." J. Geophys. Res, 104: 26481-26496.

    Douglass, A. R., and S. R. Kawa. 1999. "Contrast Between 1992 and 1997 High Latitude Spring Halogen Occultation Experiment Observations of Lower Stratospheric HCl." J. Geophys. Res., 104 (D15): 18739-18754 [10.1029/1999JD900281]

    Morris, G. A., S. R. Kawa, A. R. Douglass, et al. M. R. Schoeberl, L. Froidevaux, and J. Waters. 1998. "Low-Ozone Pockets Explained,." J. Geophys. Res., 103: 3599-3610.

    Kumer, J. B., S. R. Kawa, A. E. Roche, et al. J. L. Merganthaler, S. E. Smith, F. W. Taylor, P. S. Connell, and A. R. Douglass. 1997. "UARS First Global N2O5 Data Sets: Application to a Stratospheric Warming Event in January 1992,." J. Geophys. Res., 102: 3575-3582.

    Dessler, A. E., D. B. Considine, S. R. Kawa, A. R. Douglass, and J. M. Russell. 1997. "Lower Stratospheric Chlorine Partitioning During the Decay of the Mt. Pinatubo Aerosol Cloud,." Geophys. Res. Lett., 24: 1623-1626.

    Kawa, S. R., P. A. Newman, L. R. Lait, et al. M. R. Schoeberl, R. M. Stimpfle, J. G. Anderson, D. W. Kohn, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, D. Baumgardner, J. E. Dye, J. C. Wilson, K. R. Chan, and M. Loewenstein. 1997. "Activation of Chlorine in Sulfate Aerosol as Inferred from Aircraft Observations." J. Geophys. Res, 102 (D3): 3921-3933 [10.1029/96JD01992]

    Cordero, E., S. R. Kawa, and M. R. Schoeberl. 1997. "An Analysis of Tropical Transport: Influence of the QBO." J. Geophys. Res., 102 (D14): 16453-16461 [10.1029/97JD01053]

    Dessler, A. E., S. R. Kawa, D. B. Considine, et al. J. B. Kumer, J. W. Waters, L. Froidevaux, and J. M. Russell III. 1996. "UARS Measurements of ClO and NO2 at 40 and 46 km and Implications for the 'Ozone Deficit',." Geophys. Res. Lett., 23: 339-342.

    Kondo, Y., S. R. Kawa, D. Lary, et al. T. Sugita, A. R. Douglass, E. Lutman, M. Koike, and T. Deshler. 1996. "Interpretation of Nitric Oxide Profile Observed in January 1992 over Kiruna,." J. Geophys. Res., 101: 12 [Full Text (Link)] [555-12]

    Dessler, A. E., S. R. Kawa, A. R. Douglass, et al. D. B. Considine, J. B. Kumer, A. E. Roche, J. W. Waters, J. M. Russell III, and J. C. Gille. 1996. "A Test of the Partitioning Between ClO and ClONO2 Based on Simultaneous UARS Measurements of ClO, NO2, and ClONO2." J. Geophys. Res., 101 (D7): 12515-12521 [10.1029/96JD00695]

    Schoeberl, M., A. R. Douglass, S. R. Kawa, et al. A. Dessler, P. A. Newman, R. S. Stolarski, A. Roche, J. Waters, and J. Russell III. 1996. "Development of the Antarctic Ozone Hole." J. Geophys. Res, 101 (D15): 20909–20924 [10.1029/96JD01707]

    Kawa, S. R., J. B. Kumer, A. R. Douglass, et al. A. E. Roche, S. E. Smith, F. W. Taylor, and D. J. Allen. 1995. "Missing Chemistry of Reactive Nitrogen in the Upper Stratospheric Polar Winter,." Geophys. Res. Lett., 22: 2629-2632.

    Loewenstein, M., J. R. Podolske, D. W. Fahey, et al. E. L. Woodbridge, P. Tin, A. Weaver, P. A. Newman, S. E. Strahan, S. R. Kawa, M. R. Schoeberl, and L. R. Lait. 1993. "New Observations of the Noy/N2O Correlation in the Lower Stratosphere." Geophys. Res. Lett, 20: 2531-2534.

    Kawa, S. R., D. W. Fahey, J. C. Wilson, et al. M. R. Schoeberl, A. R. Douglass, R. S. Stolarski, E. L. Woodbridge, H. Jonsson, L. R. Lait, P. A. Newman, M. H. Proffitt, D. W. Toohey, D. E. Anderson, M. Loewenstein, K. R. Chan, C. R. Webster, R. May, and K. K. Kelly. 1993. "Interpretation of NOx/NOy Observations from AASE-II Using a Model of Chemistry Along Trajectories." Geophys. Res. Lett, 20: 2507-2510.

    Non-Refereed

    Oman, L. D., D. W. Waugh, S. R. Kawa, et al. R. S. Stolarski, A. R. Douglass, and P. A. Newman. 2010. "Mechanisms and feedback causing changes in upper stratospheric ozone in the 21st century." J. Geophys. Res. 115 (D5): D05303 [10.1029/2009JD012397]

    Brief Bio

    From a start measuring air quality for industry through graduate studies in atmospheric chemistry near the Earth's surface, a post-doc focussed on stratospheric ozone, and a NASA career in global composition modeling and data analysis, I have always valued research near the interface of observations and theoretical modeling.  Data from remote sensing, in situ, and the laboratory gives us the opportunity to view new things, and comparisons to models, either in agreement or not, enables us to apply the research to understanding problems such as air quality, ozone loss, and global warming for everyone's potential benefit.

    Selected Publications

    Refereed

    Mao, J., A. Ramanathan, J. B. Abshire, et al. S. R. Kawa, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, M. Rodriguez, W. E. Hasselbrack, X. Sun, K. Numata, J. Chen, Y. Choi, and M. Y. Yang. 2018. "Measurement of atmospheric CO<sub>2</sub> column concentrations to cloud tops with a pulsed multi-wavelength airborne lidar." Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 11 (1): 127-140 [10.5194/amt-11-127-2018]

    Crowell, S. M., S. R. Kawa, E. V. Browell, et al. D. M. Hammerling, B. Moore, K. Schaefer, and S. C. Doney. 2018. "On the Ability of Space-Based Passive and Active Remote Sensing Observations of CO2 to Detect Flux Perturbations to the Carbon Cycle." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 123 (2): 1460-1477 [10.1002/2017jd027836]

    Wolfe, G. M., S. R. Kawa, T. F. Hanisco, et al. R. A. Hannun, P. A. Newman, A. Swanson, S. Bailey, J. Barrick, K. L. Thornhill, G. Diskin, J. DiGangi, J. B. Nowak, C. Sorenson, G. Bland, J. K. Yungel, and C. A. Swenson. 2018. "The NASA Carbon Airborne Flux Experiment (CARAFE): instrumentation and methodology." Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 11 (3): 1757-1776 [10.5194/amt-11-1757-2018]

    Abshire, J. B., A. K. Ramanathan, H. Riris, et al. G. R. Allan, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, J. Mao, S. Wu, J. Chen, K. Numata, S. R. Kawa, M. Y. Yang, and J. DiGangi. 2018. "Airborne measurements of CO<sub>2</sub> column concentrations made with a pulsed IPDA lidar using a multiple-wavelength-locked laser and HgCdTe APD detector." Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 11 (4): 2001-2025 [10.5194/amt-11-2001-2018]

    Parazoo, N. C., A. Arneth, T. A. Pugh, et al. B. Smith, N. Steiner, K. Luus, R. Commane, J. Benmergui, E. Stofferahn, J. Liu, C. Rödenbeck, R. Kawa, E. Euskirchen, D. Zona, K. Arndt, W. Oechel, and C. Miller. 2018. "Spring photosynthetic onset and net CO2 uptake in Alaska triggered by landscape thawing." Global Change Biology 24 (8): 3416-3435 [10.1111/gcb.14283]

    Wang, J. S., S. R. Kawa, G. J. Collatz, et al. M. Sasakawa, L. V. Gatti, T. Machida, Y. Liu, and M. E. Manyin. 2018. "A global synthesis inversion analysis of recent variability in CO<sub>2</sub> fluxes using GOSAT and in situ observations." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 18 (15): 11097-11124 [10.5194/acp-18-11097-2018]

    Singh, U. N., T. F. Refaat, S. Ismail, et al. K. J. Davis, S. R. Kawa, R. T. Menzies, and M. Petros. 2017. "Feasibility study of a space-based high pulse energy 2  μm CO_2 IPDA lidar." Applied Optics 56 (23): 6531 [10.1364/ao.56.006531]

    Riris, H., K. Numata, S. Wu, et al. B. Gonzalez, M. Rodriguez, S. Scott, S. Kawa, and J. Mao. 2017. "Methane optical density measurements with an integrated path differential absorption lidar from an airborne platform." Journal of Applied Remote Sensing 11 (03): 1 [10.1117/1.jrs.11.034001]

    Ott, L. E., S. Pawson, G. J. Collatz, et al. W. W. Gregg, D. Menemenlis, H. Brix, C. S. Rousseaux, K. W. Bowman, J. Liu, A. Eldering, M. R. Gunson, and S. R. Kawa. 2015. "Assessing the magnitude of CO2 flux uncertainty in atmospheric CO2 records using products from NASA's Carbon Monitoring Flux Pilot Project." Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres 120 734-765 [doi:10.1002/2014JD022411]

    Kiemle, C., G. Ehret, S. Kawa, and E. Browell. 2015. "The global distribution of cloud gaps in CALIPSO data." Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer 153 95-101 [10.1016/j.jqsrt.2014.12.001]

    Hammerling, D. M., S. R. Kawa, K. Schaefer, S. Doney, and A. M. Michalak. 2015. " Detectability of CO 2 flux signals by a space-based lidar mission ." J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 120 (5): 1794-1807 [10.1002/2014jd022483]

    Glatthor, N., M. Höpfner, I. T. Baker, et al. J. Berry, J. E. Campbell, S. R. Kawa, G. Krysztofiak, A. Leyser, B.-M. Sinnhuber, G. P. Stiller, J. Stinecipher, and T. von Clarmann. 2015. "Tropical sources and sinks of carbonyl sulfide observed from space." Geophysical Research Letters 42 (22): 10,082-10,090 [10.1002/2015gl066293]

    Wang, J. S., S. R. Kawa, J. Eluszkiewicz, et al. D. F. Baker, M. Mountain, J. Henderson, T. Nehrkorn, and T. S. Zaccheo. 2014. "A regional CO2 observing system simulation experiment for the ASCENDS satellite mission." Atmos. Chem. Phys. 14 12,897-12,914 [10.5194/acp-14-12897-2014]

    Weaver, C. J., C. Kiemle, S. R. Kawa, et al. T. Aalto, J. Necki, M. Steinbacher, J. Arduini, F. Apadula, H. Berkhout, and J. Hatakka. 2014. "Retrieval of methane source strengths in Europe using a simple modeling approach to assess the potential of spaceborne lidar observations." Atmos. Chem. Phys. 14 2625-2637 [10.5194/acp-14-2625-2014]

    Kiemle, C., S. R. Kawa, M. Quatrevalet, and E. V. Browell. 2014. "Performance simulations for a spaceborne methane lidar mission." J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 119 (7): 4365–4379 [10.1002/2013JD021253]

    Chatterjee, A., R. J. Engelen, S. R. Kawa, C. Sweeney, and A. M. Michalak. 2013. "Background error covariance estimation for atmospheric CO2 data assimilation." Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres 118 (17): 10140-10154 [10.1002/jgrd.50654 ]

    Numata, K., H. Riris, S. Li, et al. S. Wu, S. R. Kawa, M. Krainak, and J. Abshire. 2012. "Ground demonstration of trace gas lidar based on optical parametric amplifier." Journal of Applied Remote Sensing 6 (1): 063561 [10.1117/1.JRS.6.063561]

    Fishman, J., L. T. Iraci, J. Al-Saadi, et al. K. V. Chance, F. Chavez, M. Chin, P. Coble, C. Davis, P. M. DiGiacomo, D. Edwards, A. Eldering, J. Goes, J. R. Herman, C. Hu, D. J. Jacob, C. Jordan, S. R. Kawa, R. Key, X. Liu, S. Lohrenz, A. Mannino, V. Natraj, D. Neil, J. Neu, M. Newchurch, K. Pickering, J. Salisbury, H. Sosik, A. Subramaniam, M. Tzortziou, J. Wang, and M. Wang. 2012. "The United States' Next Generation of Atmospheric Composition and Coastal Ecosystem Measurements: NASA's Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) Mission." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 93 (10): 1547-1566 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00201.1]

    Riris, H., K. Numata, S. X. Li, et al. S. T. Wu, A. K. Ramanathan, M. W. Dawsey, J. Mao, S. R. Kawa, and J. B. Abshire. 2012. "Airborne measurements of atmospheric methane column abundance made using a pulsed IPDA lidar." Applied Optics 51 (34): 8296-8305 [10.1364/AO.51.008296]

    Hammerling, D., A. Michalak, and S. R. Kawa. 2012. "Mapping of CO2 at high spatiotemporal resolution using satellite observations: Global distributions from OCO-2." J. Geophys. Res. 117 (D6): D06306 [10.1029/2011JD017015]

    Parazoo, N., A. Denning, S. R. Kawa, S. Pawson, and R. Lokupitiya. 2012. "CO2 flux estimation errors associated with moist atmospheric processes." Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12 (14): 6405-6416 [10.5194/acp-12-6405-2012]

    Liang, F., P. Palmer, Y. Yang, et al. R. Yantosca, S. Kawa, J. Paris, H. Matsueda, and T. Machida. 2011. "Evaluating a 3-D transport model of atmospheric CO₂using ground-based, aircraft, and space-borne data." Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11 (6): 2789-2803 [10.5194/acp-11-2789-2011]

    Oman, L. D., D. W. Waugh, S. R. Kawa, et al. R. S. Stolarski, A. R. Douglass, and P. A. Newman. 2010. "Mechanisms and feedback causing changes in upper stratospheric ozone in the 21st century." J. Geophys. Res 115

    Bian, H., M. Chin, S. R. Kawa, et al. H. Yu, T. L. Diehl, and T. L. Kucsera. 2010. "Multiscale carbon monoxide and aerosol correlations from satellite measurements and the GOCART model: Implication for emissions and atmospheric evolution." J Geophys Res 115 (D7): D07302 [10.1029/2009JD012781]

    Liang, Q., R. S. Stolarski, S. Kawa, et al. J. Nielsen, A. R. Douglass, J. M. Rodriguez, D. Blake, E. Atlas, and L. Ott. 2010. "Finding the missing stratospheric Bry: a global modeling study of CHBr₃ and CH₂Br₂." Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10 (5): 2269-2286 [10.5194/acp-10-2269-2010]

    Kawa, S., J. Mao, J. Abshire, et al. G. Collatz, X. Sun, and C. Weaver. 2010. "Simulation studies for a space-based CO2 lidar mission." Tellus B 62 (5): 759-769 [10.1111/j.1600-0889.2010.00486.X]

    Toon, O., D. O. Starr, E. Jensen, et al. P. Newman, S. E. Platnick, M. R. Schoeberl, P. Wennberg, S. Wolsy, M. J. Kurylo, H. Maring, K. Jucks, M. Craig, M. Vasques, L. Pfister, K. Rosenlof, H. B. Selkirk, P. R. Colarco, S. R. Kawa, G. Mace, P. Minnis, and K. E. Pickering. 2010. "Planning, implementation, and first results of the Tropical Composition, Cloud and Climate Coupling Experiment (TC4)." J. Geophys. Res. 115 D00J04 [10.1029/2009JD013073]

    Waugh, D. W., L. Oman, S. R. Kawa, et al. R. S. Stolarski, S. Pawson, A. R. Douglass, P. A. Newman, and J. E. Nielsen. 2009. "Impacts of climate change on stratospheric ozone recovery." Geophysical Research Letters 36 (3): L03805 [10.1029/2008GL036223]

    Newman, P., L. Oman, A. R. Douglass, et al. E. L. Fleming, S. M. Frith, M. M. Hurwitz, S. R. Kawa, C. H. Jackman, N. A. Krotkov, E. R. Nash, J. E. Nielsen, S. Pawson, R. S. Stolarski, and G. J. Velders. 2009. "What would have happened to the ozone layer if chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) had not been regulated?" Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9 (6): 2113-2128 [10.5194/acp-9-2113-2009]

    Kawa, S. R., R. S. Stolarski, P. Newman, et al. A. R. Douglass, M. Rex, D. Hofmann, M. Santee, and K. Frieler. 2009. "Sensitivity of polar stratospheric ozone loss to uncertainties in chemical reaction kinetics." Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9 (22): 8651-8660 [10.5194/acp-9-8651-2009]

    Lokupitiya, R. S., D. Zupanski, A. S. Denning, et al. S. R. Kawa, K. R. Gurney, and M. Zupanski. 2008. "Estimation of global CO2 fluxes at regional scale using the maximum likelihood ensemble filter." J. Geophys. Res. 113 (D20): D20110 [10.1029/2007JD009679]

    Parazoo, N., A. Denning, S. R. Kawa, et al. K. Corbin, R. Lokupitiya, and I. Baker. 2008. "Mechanisms for synoptic variations of atmospheric CO₂ in North America, South America and Europe." Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8 (23): 7239-7254 [10.5194/acp-8-7239-2008]

    Law, R. M., W. Peters, C. Rodenbeck, et al. C. Aulagnier, I. Baker, D. J. Bergmann, P. Bousquet, J. Brandt, L. Bruhwiler, P. J. Cameron-Smith, J. H. Christensen, F. Delage, A. S. Denning, S. Fan, C. Geels, S. Houweling, R. Imasu, U. Karstens, and S. R. Kawa. 2008. "TransCom model simulations of hourly atmospheric CO2: Experimental overview and diurnal cycle results for 2002." Global Biochem Cycles 22 (GB3009, doi:101029/):

    Alkhaled, A. A., A. M. Michalak, and S. R. Kawa. 2008. "Using CO2 spatial variability to quantify representation errors of satellite CO2 retrievals." Geophy Res Lett 35 (L16813, doi:101029/):

    Erickson III, D. J., R. T. Mills, J. Gregg, et al. T. J. Blasing, F. M. Hoffman, R. J. Andres, M. Devries, Z. Zhu, and S. R. Kawa. 2008. "An estimate of monthly global emissions of anthropogenic CO2: Impact on the seasonal cycle of atmospheric CO2." J Geophys Res 113 (G01023): 9 pp [10.1029/2007JG000435]

    Alkhaled, A. A., A. M. Michalak, S. R. Kawa, S. C. Olsen, and J.-W. Wang. 2008. "A global evaluation of the regional spatial variability of column integrated CO2 distributions." J Geophys Res 113 (D20): 303-319 [10.1029/2007JD009693]

    Pawson, S., I. Stajner, S. Kawa, et al. H. Hayasha, W. Tan, J. Nielsen, Z. Zhu, L. Chang, and N. Livesey. 2007. "Stratospheric transport using 6-h-averaged winds from a data assimilation system." J Geophys Res 112 (D23103): 1-12

    Schoeberl, M. R., S. R. Kawa, A. R. Douglass, et al. T. J. McGee, E. V. Browell, J. Waters, N. Livesey, W. Read, L. Froidevaux, M. L. Santee, H. C. Pumphrey, L. R. Lait, and L. Twigg. 2006. "Chemical observations of a polar vortex intrusion." J. Geophys. Res. 111 (D20): D20306 [10.1029/2006JD007134]

    Newman, P., S. R. Kawa, E. R. Nash, S. Montzka, and S. Schauffler. 2006. "When will the Antarctic ozone hole recover?" Geophysical Research Letters 33 (12): L12814 [10.1029/2005GL025232]

    Schoeberl, M., S. R. Kawa, A. R. Douglass, et al. T. J. Mcgee, E. V. Browell, J. Waters, N. Livesey, W. Read, L. Froidevaux, M. L. Santee, H. C. Pumphrey, L. R. Lait, and L. Twigg. 2006. "Chemical observations of a polar vortex intrusion." J Geophys Res 111 D20306 [10.1029/2006JD007134]

    Bian, H., S. R. Kawa, M. Chin, et al. S. Pawson, Z. Zhu, P. Rasch, and S. Wu. 2006. "A test of sensitivity to convective transport in a global atmospheric CO2 simulation." Tellus B 58 (5): 463-475 [10.1111/j.1600-0889.2006.00212.x]

    Kawa, S. R., P. Newman, R. Stolarski, and R. Bevilacqua. 2005. "Fall vortex ozone as a predictor of springtime total ozone at high northern latitudes." Atmos Chem Phys 5 1655-1663

    Gurney, K. R., Y.-H. Chen, T. Maki, et al. S. R. Kawa, A. E. Andrews, and Z. Zhu. 2005. "Sensitivity of atmospheric CO₂ inversions to seasonal and interannual variations in fossil fuel emissions." J. Geophys. Res. 110 (D10): D10308 [10.1029/2004JD005373]

    Mao, J., and S. R. Kawa. 2004. "Sensitivity Studies for Space-based Measurement of Atmospheric Total Column Carbon Dioxide by Reflected Sunlight." Applied Optics 43 914-927.

    Kawa, S. R., D. J. Erickson III, S. Pawson, and Z. Zhu. 2004. "Global CO₂ transport simulations using meteorological data from the NASA data assimilation system." J. Geophys. Res. 109 (D18): D18312 [10.1029/2004JD004554]

    Ma, J., D. W. Waugh, A. R. Douglass, et al. S. R. Kawa, P. A. Newman, S. Pawson, R. S. Stolarski, S. J. Lin, and Q. J. Roy. 2004. "Interannual variability of stratospheric trace gases: The role of extratropical wave driving." Met. Soc 130 2459-2474

    Newman, P. A., S. R. Kawa, and E. R. Nash. 2004. "On the size of the Antarctic ozone hole." Geophys. Res. Lett 31 (21): L21104

    Considine, D. B., S. R. Kawa, M. R. Schoeberl, and A. R. Douglass. 2003. "N2O and NOy observations in the 1999/2000 Arctic polar vortex: Implications for transport processes in a CTM." J. Geophys. Res. 108 (D5): 4170 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1029/2002JD002525]

    Kawa, S. R., R. Bevilacqua, J. J. Margitan, et al. A. R. Douglass, M. R. Schoeberl, K. Hoppel, and B. Sen. 2002. "Interaction between dynamics and chemistry of ozone in the setup phase of the Northern Hemisphere polar vortex." J. Geophys. Res. 107 (D5): 8310 [10.1029/2001JD001527]

    Cordero, E. C., and S. R. Kawa. 2001. "Ozone and Tracer Transport Variations in the Summer Northern Hemisphere Stratosphere,." J. Geophys. Res. 106 12 [Full Text (Link)] [227-12]

    Pierson, J. M., S. R. Kawa, R. J. Salawitch, et al. T. F. Hanisco, E. J. Lanzendorf, K. K. Perkins, and R. S. Gao. 2000. "The Influence of Airmass Histories on Radical Species During POLARIS,." J. Geophys. Res. 105 15185-15199.

    Kawa, S. R., J. G. Anderson, S. L. Baughcum, et al. C. Brock, W. H. Brune, R. C. Cohen, D. E. Kinnison, P. Newman, J. M. Rodriguez, R. S. Stolarski, D. W. Waugh, and S. C. Wofsy. 1999. "Assessment of the Effects of High-Speed Aircraft in the Stratosphere: 1998." NASA/TP-1999-209237

    Newman, P., D. Fahey, W. Brune, M. Kurylo, and S. R. Kawa. 1999. "Preface: Photochemistry of Ozone Loss in the Arctic Region in Summer (POLARIS)." J. Geophys. Res 104 26481-26496

    Douglass, A. R., and S. R. Kawa. 1999. "Contrast Between 1992 and 1997 High Latitude Spring Halogen Occultation Experiment Observations of Lower Stratospheric HCl." J. Geophys. Res. 104 (D15): 18739-18754 [10.1029/1999JD900281]

    Morris, G. A., S. R. Kawa, A. R. Douglass, et al. M. R. Schoeberl, L. Froidevaux, and J. Waters. 1998. "Low-Ozone Pockets Explained,." J. Geophys. Res. 103 3599-3610.

    Kumer, J. B., S. R. Kawa, A. E. Roche, et al. J. L. Merganthaler, S. E. Smith, F. W. Taylor, P. S. Connell, and A. R. Douglass. 1997. "UARS First Global N2O5 Data Sets: Application to a Stratospheric Warming Event in January 1992,." J. Geophys. Res. 102 3575-3582.

    Dessler, A. E., D. B. Considine, S. R. Kawa, A. R. Douglass, and J. M. Russell. 1997. "Lower Stratospheric Chlorine Partitioning During the Decay of the Mt. Pinatubo Aerosol Cloud,." Geophys. Res. Lett. 24 1623-1626.

    Kawa, S. R., P. A. Newman, L. R. Lait, et al. M. R. Schoeberl, R. M. Stimpfle, J. G. Anderson, D. W. Kohn, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, D. Baumgardner, J. E. Dye, J. C. Wilson, K. R. Chan, and M. Loewenstein. 1997. "Activation of Chlorine in Sulfate Aerosol as Inferred from Aircraft Observations." J. Geophys. Res 102 (D3): 3921-3933 [10.1029/96JD01992]

    Cordero, E., S. R. Kawa, and M. R. Schoeberl. 1997. "An Analysis of Tropical Transport: Influence of the QBO." J. Geophys. Res. 102 (D14): 16453-16461 [10.1029/97JD01053]

    Dessler, A. E., S. R. Kawa, D. B. Considine, et al. J. B. Kumer, J. W. Waters, L. Froidevaux, and J. M. Russell III. 1996. "UARS Measurements of ClO and NO2 at 40 and 46 km and Implications for the 'Ozone Deficit',." Geophys. Res. Lett. 23 339-342.

    Kondo, Y., S. R. Kawa, D. Lary, et al. T. Sugita, A. R. Douglass, E. Lutman, M. Koike, and T. Deshler. 1996. "Interpretation of Nitric Oxide Profile Observed in January 1992 over Kiruna,." J. Geophys. Res. 101 12 [Full Text (Link)] [555-12]

    Dessler, A. E., S. R. Kawa, A. R. Douglass, et al. D. B. Considine, J. B. Kumer, A. E. Roche, J. W. Waters, J. M. Russell III, and J. C. Gille. 1996. "A Test of the Partitioning Between ClO and ClONO2 Based on Simultaneous UARS Measurements of ClO, NO2, and ClONO2." J. Geophys. Res. 101 (D7): 12515-12521 [10.1029/96JD00695]

    Schoeberl, M., A. R. Douglass, S. R. Kawa, et al. A. Dessler, P. A. Newman, R. S. Stolarski, A. Roche, J. Waters, and J. Russell III. 1996. "Development of the Antarctic Ozone Hole." J. Geophys. Res 101 (D15): 20909–20924 [10.1029/96JD01707]

    Kawa, S. R., J. B. Kumer, A. R. Douglass, et al. A. E. Roche, S. E. Smith, F. W. Taylor, and D. J. Allen. 1995. "Missing Chemistry of Reactive Nitrogen in the Upper Stratospheric Polar Winter,." Geophys. Res. Lett. 22 2629-2632.

    Loewenstein, M., J. R. Podolske, D. W. Fahey, et al. E. L. Woodbridge, P. Tin, A. Weaver, P. A. Newman, S. E. Strahan, S. R. Kawa, M. R. Schoeberl, and L. R. Lait. 1993. "New Observations of the Noy/N2O Correlation in the Lower Stratosphere." Geophys. Res. Lett 20 2531-2534

    Kawa, S. R., D. W. Fahey, J. C. Wilson, et al. M. R. Schoeberl, A. R. Douglass, R. S. Stolarski, E. L. Woodbridge, H. Jonsson, L. R. Lait, P. A. Newman, M. H. Proffitt, D. W. Toohey, D. E. Anderson, M. Loewenstein, K. R. Chan, C. R. Webster, R. May, and K. K. Kelly. 1993. "Interpretation of NOx/NOy Observations from AASE-II Using a Model of Chemistry Along Trajectories." Geophys. Res. Lett 20 2507-2510

    Non-Refereed

    Oman, L. D., D. W. Waugh, S. R. Kawa, et al. R. S. Stolarski, A. R. Douglass, and P. A. Newman. 2010. "Mechanisms and feedback causing changes in upper stratospheric ozone in the 21st century." J. Geophys. Res. 115 (D5): D05303 [10.1029/2009JD012397]

                                                                                                                                                                                            
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